Thursday, October 08, 2015

The Maryland Parental Leave Act

 The Maryland Parental Leave Act requires requires employers with 15 to 49 employees to provide employees with unpaid parental leave.

An eligible employee may take up to a total of six weeks of parental leave in a 12-month period for the birth, adoption, or foster placement of a child.

During parental leave, the employer must maintain existing coverage for a group health plan

To be eligible for parental leave, an employee must have worked for the employer for at least one year and for 1,250 hours in the previous 12 months.  An eligible employee is generally required to provide the employer with 30-day prior notice of parental leave.

If the employer provides paid leave to employees, the employer may require that the employee substitute the paid leave for any part of or all of the period of parental leave.

The Act provides a private cause of action for damages caused by an employer’s noncompliance. If a court determines that an employee is entitled to judgment in an action, the court must award reasonable attorney’s fees and other costs of the action to the employee.

Montgomery County Employers Will Be Required to Provide Paid Sick Leave Beginning October 1, 2016

    Montgomery County is one of the few jurisdictions that require all employers provide paid sick leave.  That is the law under the Earned Sick and Safe Leave Act passed by the Montgomery County Council.  

    All employees will be entitled to accrue one of paid sick leave for every thirty hours worked. Employers with five or more employees must provide up to 56 hours per year of paid sick leave to employees. Employers with less than five employees are required to provide up to 32 hours of paid sick leave and twenty-four hours of unpaid sick and safe leave per year.

 The permissible uses of sick leave are broad.  They include:

  • Treating the employee’s own illness; 
  • Attending preventative medical appointments; and
  • Caring for a covered individual with an illness.
The Act contains and anti-retaliation provision and a complaint procedure.   As noted, the Act becomes effective October 1, 2016.

Friday, October 10, 2014

Maryland's Highest Court to Hear Oral Arguments in Two Employment Law Cases in November 2014

The Maryland Court of Appeals (our highest Court) will hear oral argument in two employment law cases in November 2014.

In Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1300 v. Lovelace, the Court is reviewing whether a disgruntled union officer's court claims against his union are barred because he has a remedy through an internal procedure.  The Court of Special Appeals ruled that because the internal procedure did not allow the union officer to collect damages, the procedure were "inadequate" and no bar to a court proceeding.

In Cunningham v. Matthew Feinberg, the Court is reviewing whether the doctrine of lex loci contractus precludes a claim under the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law.  The doctrine means that when deciding a question of interpretation and validity of a contract provisions, the Maryland courts ordinarily should apply the law of the jurisdiction where the contract was made.  The Court of Special Appeals decision is unpublished and I have not read it yet.  I am guessing that the case involves an employer's claim that it reached a deal with an employee in some state other than Maryland, and, therefore, the other state's law applies to the employee's wage claim.

Thursday, September 04, 2014

Maryland Department of Labor Publishes Regulations Implementing Wage Lien Act

The Maryland Department of Labor (DLLR) recently published regulations implementing the Wage Lien Act.  The regs track the language of the statute, but to a good job explaining how to file a wage lien.

  1. An employee starts the process by serving on the employer a "Notice of Claim for Unpaid Wages."    The regulation specifies eight pieces of information that must be on the Notice, including: (a) The basis for the claim that wages were due but were not paid; (b) the monetary amount of the lien sought; (c) the real or personal property, or both, against which the lien is sought along with a description adequate to identify the property, name of owner, and location; and (d) notice to the employer of their right to dispute the lien by filing a complaint within 30 days of receipt of the notice.  Service can be accomplished by certified mail requesting, “Restricted Delivery—Show to whom, date, and address of delivery.”                                                                                                                                                              
  2. If the employer disagrees with the Notice, the employer can file suit.   The suit must contain  an explanation of why the wages claimed by the employee are not due and owing by the employer.                                                                                                                                           
  3. If the Lien is either not disputed or established in Court, the employee can then file a "Wage Lien Statement."   The Statement must include: A description of the property; the name of the property owner; the monetary amount of the lien; A copy of the Notice for Unpaid Wages; and a copy of the Order establishing the lien for unpaid wages if the lien for unpaid wages is established in a court.

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

Maryland's Highest Court Rules That Triple Damages are Recoverable for Unpaid Overtime

I have long tracked the debate over whether triple damages are recoverable for overtime under the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law.   Maryland's highest Court, the Court of Appeals, put the issue to bed in Muriel Peters v. Early Healthcare Giver, Inc.  The Court ruled (as predicted) that triple damages are recoverable for unpaid overtime.   The Court ruled that way because in 2010 the Maryland General Assembly amended the law to add the word "overtime" to the definition of wages. Several Federal Court decisions, nonetheless, held that triple damages were not recoverable if they were never promised to the employee.  The Maryland Court of Appeals rejected those cases and held triple damages are available for unpaid overtime.

The Court in Peters also held:

  • A judge or jury must first find that the employer withheld the employee's wages in bad faith before awarding additional -- up to triple -- damages to the employee; 
  • There is no outright presumption in favor of an award of enhanced damages; 
  • The employer has the initial burden to prove it withheld wages in good faith.  The burden then shifts to the employee who must ultimately persuade the judge or jury that the employer withheld the wages in bad faith; and
  • The maximum award the plaintiff can receive is three times the unpaid wages.  If the employee is owed $1 in wages, the maximum he or she can recover is $3 (there had been an argument that he or she should be able to recover $4 -- the owed wages plus triple damages).     

Monday, June 23, 2014

Q. Does the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law permit triple damages for overtime? (Update: Yes)

A.  I believe that the answer is yes (and wrote about why I think that is case).  A case pending before the Maryland Court of Appeals will likely provide a final answer.  The case is Muriel Peters v. Early Healthcare Giver, Inc.   The Court in Peters agreed to review the following three questions:

1) Are overtime wages recoverable under the MD Wage Payment and Collection Law (MWPCL)?

2) In a bench trial, is it an abuse of discretion to fail, without explanation, to award treble damages under the MWPCL where there is no claim of bona fide dispute?

3) Should any award of up to treble damages under MWPCL be made in addition to the award of unpaid wages?

The above questions suggest that the trial court awarded overtime wages but did not award the triple damages permitted by the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law (but did not explain why).  The Court of Appeals held oral argument on April 29, 2014.  The employer did not participate (probably because it did not have the money to retain a lawyer).  The Court of Appeal had many questions about how it could award triple damages in the absence of a trial court finding that the overtime wages were withheld in bad faith.  To me, that suggests the Court will remand the case back to the trial court to decide that issue and explain the rationale for its decision.
8/19/14 -- Update the Court ruled that triple damages are recoverable for unpaid overtime and remanded the case to the Circuit Court to decide whether to award such damages in this case.

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Maryland Law Increasing Minimum Wage Also Provides for Liquidated (or Double) Damages

    The Federal law governing the minimum wage and overtime is the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA").  Maryland has its own minimum wage and overtime law, called the Maryland Wage and Hour Law ("MWHL").  Under the FLSA, a plaintiff claiming unpaid wages can collect the amount owed plus an equivalent amount as liquidated damages.  The plaintiff thus can collect double damages.  Under the MWHL, a plaintiff could only collect the wages owed (single damages).  As a result, most plaintiffs have historically brought their claims under the FLSA. Most FLSA claims end up in Federal Court.

   That is likely to change.  The law eventually raising Maryland's minimum wage to $10.10 also states that Court can shall award liquidated damages for a violation of the MWHL.  An employer can avoid liquidated damages if it can show it acted in good faith and reasonably believed that the wages paid to the employee were not less than the MWHL requires.  The law takes effect July 1, 2014.  As a result, more overtime and minimum wage cases will end up in Maryland State Courts.

Thursday, February 06, 2014

Maryland Court of Appeals Will Review Case Alleging Over-Garnishment of Wages (Update: Affirmed)

  Bonita Marshall alleged that Safeway over-garnished her wages and the wages of similarly situated employees.  By so doing, Ms. Marshall argued Safeway violated the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law.  She sought back wages, triple damages, injunctive relief, class certification, and attorney's fees.

  Safeway admitted it over-garnished Ms. Marshall's wages.  But Safeway claimed it repaid her and changed its policies to insure the over-garnishment never happened again.

 The Court of Special Appeals ruled that Safeway did not withhold Ms. Marshall's wages in violation of the Wage Payment and Collection Law but garnished her wages.  The Court also noted Ms. Marshall had remedies in the case that led to the garnishment.  Ultimately, the Court affirmed the trial court's rulings denying class certification, injunctive relief, and damages.

The Court of Appeals granted certiorari on a wide variety of issues in the case, including whether the over-garnishment of wages is a claim under the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law. 

UPDATE 1. Argument was held February 10, 2014.

UPDATE 2.  On March 26, 2014, the Court of Appeals issued its decision.  It affirmed the Circuit Court's decision.  The Court of Appeals did find that an employer violates the Maryland Wage Payment and Collection Law if it makes an unlawful deduction from an employee's wage.